# Mathematics

YOU + DLS = GREATNESS!

Every student can be successful with the right support group. Our Department strives to meet the needs of the class as a whole and each student individually. This means meeting our struggling students at their current level of understanding and challenging all of our students to succeed beyond their expectations. We encourage critical thinking and incorporate problem-solving opportunities in all of our classrooms. We offer a variety of levels of classes that not only challenge the students but prepare their skill sets for college and the rest of their lives.

## Freshman Classes

## Intensive Math

**Grade Offered:** 9

**Prerequisites:** None

To be successful in this course, students must demonstrate improvement in the following skill sets: Math facts, basic computational skills, number sense, speed, and accuracy. This course is meant to complement their Algebra 1 course, not replace it. By addressing basic math skills in this course, students who have struggled in mathematics in the past have the opportunity to address the root of the problem. When available, class time may be spent reinforcing topics in the Algebra 1 course. Students who need this course will not take a foreign language in their freshmen year. This is a pass/fail course that does not impact the grade point average calculations.

## Algebra I

**Grade Offered:** 9

**Prerequisites: **None

To be successful in this course, students should have a mastery of; addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of integers, fractions, and decimals, the number line and properties of numbers, factors, divisibility tests, and prime factorization…and should have been introduced to; GCFs, LCMs, exponents, square roots, absolute value, scientific notation, ratios and proportions, percents, and order of operations. This course is intended for students to build a solid foundation of algebraic skills and concepts. By becoming proficient in these skills and concepts, the students can apply them confidently in further math courses. Topics covered include; solving equations, solving and graphing linear equations and inequalities, solving systems of linear equations, polynomials, rational expressions, radical expressions, quadratic equations, and algebra word problems.

## Freshman/Sophomore Classes

## Modern Geometry

**Grade Offered:** 9, 10

**Prerequisites: **Algebra I

To be successful in this course, students should have mastered the following: performing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; solving linear algebraic equations; isolating variables in a function. This course will provide students with the knowledge and fundamentals, on which their future math classes will depend, continue to develop, and expand upon. It will emphasize the student’s knowledge of algebra and deductive reasoning applied to geometric properties. The geometric principles studied in this course are applicable to all of the sciences. The application of this course material is essential to the teaching of the class. Emphasis will be placed on: reinforcing basic concepts of Algebra, understanding geometric language, graphing and coordinate Geometry, measurements in two and three dimensions, applying algebraic properties to geometric principles, and applications of geometric properties.

## Honors Modern Geometry

**Grade Offered: **9, 10

**Prerequisites: **Algebra I

To be successful in this course, students should have mastered the following: performing addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; solving linear algebraic equations; isolating variables in a function. This course will provide students with the knowledge and fundamentals, on which their future math classes will depend, continue to develop, and expand upon. It will emphasize the student’s knowledge of algebra and deductive reasoning applied to geometric properties. The geometric principles studied in this course are applicable to all of the sciences. The application of this course material is essential to the teaching of the class. Emphasis will be placed on: reinforcing basic concepts of Algebra, understanding geometric language, graphing and coordinate Geometry, measurements in two and three dimensions, applying algebraic properties to geometric principles, and applications of geometric properties.

## Advanced Geometry

**Grades Offered: **9, 10

**Prerequisites (Ninth Grade): **Algebra I in eighth grade, HSPT and IFMPE scores, and approval of department leader.

**Prerequisites (10th Grade):** “A” in Honors Algebra I, and approval of department leader.

To be successful in this course, the student should have already mastered the following from Algebra 1; fractions, decimals, percents, exponents, radicals, solving equations and inequalities, solving and applying proportions, solving and graphing linear equations, solving systems of equations, and factoring all forms of polynomials. In addition, he should have been introduced to basic geometric formulas, the quadratic formula, the Pythagorean theorem, data analysis and probability. This course is designed for those freshmen and sophomores who have demonstrated a strong proficiency in Algebra I. The pace and depth of this course is substantially greater than the Hon. Geometry. In addition, students will be involved with the following: constructions with a protractor and compass, some independent projects, several math competitions, concentrated problem solving, and an introduction to trigonometry and functions.

## Sophomore/Junior Classes

## Algebra II & Trigonometry

**Grade Offered:** 11

**Prerequisite:** Modern Geometry

To be successful in this course, the students should have already mastered the following: basic operations with integers, fractions, and decimals; solving simple algebraic equations; factoring algebraic expressions. This course requires a fundamental knowledge of Algebra I and Geometry. Through problem solving and theoretical discussion it strives to strengthen the student’s ability to manipulate algebraic symbols, solve complicated equations and simplify algebraic expressions. In addition, the course will help the student to deepen his understanding of the concepts of algebra and the structures and principles, which govern the manipulation of symbols, and how the symbols themselves can be used to record ideas and gain insights into problem solving situations.

## Honors Algebra II & Trigonometry

**Grades Offered: **10, 11

**Prerequisites: **“B” in Honors or Advanced Geometry and approval of department leader.

To be successful in this course, students should have mastered the following: perform operations with numbers comfortably and easily; evaluate expressions, with and without variables, using the order of operations; graph basic functions when given an equation or be able to make a table of values; work with and graph linear equations; solve linear equations and simple quadratic equations; factor simple linear and quadratic expressions; know how to work with special right triangles (30-60-90) and (45-45-90) and the Pythagorean Theorem. This course places an emphasis on developing mathematical thinking and problem solving. It begins with an intense review of the basic concepts of algebra. Special attention is placed on polynomial, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, and their graphs. At this level, we treat the calculator as an aid to understanding – not as the central feature of the course. Applications from all branches of science are used to show how mathematics is used to model real-life situations. Throughout the course, concepts are studied from an algebraic, geometric, numeric and verbal point of view. If time permits, a non-technical approach to such topics as sequences, statistics, and probability is presented.

## Advanced Algebra II & Trigonometry

**Grades Offered:** 10, 11

**Prerequisites (10th Grade):** “B+” in Advanced Geometry, and approval of department leader. **Prerequisites (11th Grade):** “B+” in Hon. Algebra II or Advanced Geometry, and approval of the department leader.

To be successful in this course, students should have mastered the following: factoring quadratic functions, solving and graphing linear functions, representing information as a function, identifying the relationships of sides in special right triangles, using proportions to solve for sides of similar polygons. This Hon. level course is designed for those sophomores and juniors who have a strong background in algebra and geometry. Review is provided for topics from first and second year algebra. Advanced topics are then introduced to prepare students for the next course in the sequence, A.P. Calculus. Advanced topics include: Circular and Trigonometric Functions, Sequences and Series, Exponential and Logarithmic Functions, and Conic Sections. Supplemental topics will include introductions to Probability and Statistics, Matrices and Vectors, Limits, Derivatives and Integrals. Where possible, concepts are presented from four points of view: geometric (graphs), numeric (table), symbolic (formulas), and verbal (discussion). Upon completion, students should be able to solve practical problems and use appropriate models for analysis and prediction. Graphing calculators (TI 83+ or higher) are required and used throughout the course.

## Senior Classes

## Pre-Calculus

**Grade Offered:** 12

**Prerequisites:** Completion of Algebra II and Trigonometry, endorsement of the teacher, and approval of department leader.

To be successful in this course, the students should have already mastered the concept of functions in various forms including linear, quadratic, polynomials, and exponential. This course begins by reviewing and reinforcing the students’ algebraic and geometric skills. Special attention will be paid to pointing out the connection between the algebraic and geometric interpretations of important concepts. The student is then introduced to functions and their graphs with emphasis on: polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, and rational functions. The student should be able to develop mathematical models and use them to interpret real-world problems.

## Honors Pre-Calculus

**Grade Offered: **12

**Prerequisites: **“B+” in Honors Algebra II and Trigonometry, approval of the department leader.

To be successful in this course, students should have mastered the following: solving linear and rational equations, graphing linear and quadratic functions, factoring of second and third degree polynomials, understanding the meaning of domain and range, simplifying and rationalizing radicals, using a graphing calculator to graph a function, and identifying the relationships of sides in special right triangles. This course is intended for the college-bound senior. It provides an intense study of the topics, which are fundamental to the study of calculus. Emphasis is placed on functions and their graphs with special attention to polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions. Where possible, concepts are presented from four points of view: geometric (graphs), numeric (tables), symbolic (formulas), and verbally (discussion). Upon completion, students should be able to solve practical problems and use appropriate models for analysis and prediction. Graphing calculators are used throughout the course. 353 – AP CALCULUS AB